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Muone, the “unexpected” reaction of a particle that could change the laws of physics – Corriere.it

The physicist had been in turmoil for several weeks with rumors of the first results of an experiment that would open new heights. Expectations were not disappointed. During a presentation held at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (“FermiLab”) in Batavia, near Chicago, the first data for the Muon g-2 experiment were collected (read g minus two, Ed) On accurate measurements of muon’s magnetic properties that provide new evidence to support “new physics”, in practice the existence of phenomena that have not yet been described by the so-called “Standard Model”, which is the most detailed theory available on the quantum world and on a small infinity. The Muon g-2 experiment sees the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (Infn) among its most important holdings.

Muons

In nature, muons are generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere, and they are particles similar to electrons, but their mass is about 200 times greater. The experiment measured the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment with extreme precision, confirming the differences that were already highlighted in a previous experiment in 2001. By combining the two measurements, the odds that the anomalies are not statistically random becomes very high, making the hypothesis of the existence of forces or particles not yet known permitting We overcome a decades-old stalemate about the most hidden mysteries of matter and the forces that govern our universe.

Experience

In practical terms, what was measured in Fermilab is the discrepancy between the experimental result and the calculation predicted by the “Standard Model” of the precursor frequency of the muon’s magnetic moment about the direction of the magnetic field. So the difference might be due to the unknown particles and interactions that the Standard Model does not take into account. As short as a nanosecond laser pulses are used to obtain these ultra-accurate measurements. The Laser Calibration System was created in Italy in cooperation with the National Optical Institute CNR and funded by Infn.

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Accuracy

“The high-precision measurement – 150 parts per billion – that we got through our experiment has been waiting for the entire international community in particle physics for a long time,” said Graziano Finanzoni, Muon g-2 experiment spokesperson and researcher at Infn. Pisa. “INFN can be proud of this feat, having played a crucial role in the entire experience. The credit for this success is largely due to the young researchers who, thanks to their talents, ideas and enthusiasm, made it possible to obtain this important first result. ” “We can be proud of the contribution that Infn has been able to make to this important discovery, in both the design and build phases of the device,” said Marco Enkali, of the Infn division in Pisa, Muon g- national director. 2.

Ma Temperate nature Slower

But in the same place that the results were announced in the magazine Temperate nature Another experiment showed according to which the muon magnetic field behaves according to the provisions of the Standard Model.

April 7, 2021 (Change April 7, 2021 | 20:44)

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Maggie Benson

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